Your child daydreams a lot at school and is easily distracted when he’s doing homework or chores. Maybe he fidgets constantly. You might wonder if he has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.
Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.
This type occurs when a person has symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity but not inattention.
Children with this form of ADHD have tons of energy and are constantly moving in a way that causes problems. It’s diagnosed if a child under age 16 has 6 or more hyperactive/impulse symptoms for at least 6 months (5 or more for older teens). This form is more noticeable than the inattentive type.
Inattentive ADHD is what’s usually meant when someone uses the term ADD. This means a person shows enough symptoms of inattention (or easy distractibility) but isn’t hyperactive or impulsive.
ADD is diagnosed if a child under age 16 has 6 or more symptoms of inattention (5 or more for older teens) for at least 6 consecutive months but no signs of hyperactivity/impulsivity.
The symptoms include:
Children with this subtype of ADHD may go undiagnosed because the symptoms may be chalked up to daydreaming.
Combined ADHD is when a person has symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
While the exact cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not clear, research efforts continue. Factors that may be involved in the development of ADHD include:
Genetics. ADHD can run in families, and studies indicate that genes may play a role.
Environment. Certain environmental factors, such as lead exposure, may increase risk.
Development. Problems with the central nervous system at key moments in development may play a role.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder can make life difficult for children. Children with ADHD:
There’s no specific test for ADHD
While treatment won’t cure ADHD, it can help a great deal with symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications, education, training and counselling. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a big difference in outcome.
Currently, stimulant drugs (psychostimulants) are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. Stimulants appear to boost and balance levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These medications help improve the signs and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity — sometimes effectively in a short period of time.
"ഞാനും എന്റെ മോനും കുറേകാലം ഭർത്താവിനൊപ്പം വിദേശത്തായിരുന്നു. ഇപ്പോൾ ചില കുടുംബപ്രശ്നങ്ങൾ കാരണം നാട്ടിലെത്തിയ ഞാൻ മകനെ ഇവിടുത്തെ സ്കൂളിൽ ചേർത്തു. തുടക്കം തൊട്ട് വിദേശത്ത് പഠിച്ചുവളർന്ന അവന് ഇവിടുത്തെ സ്കൂളുമായി ഒട്ടും പൊരുത്തപ്പെടാൻ സാധിക്കുന്നില്ല. എട്ടിൽ പഠിക്കുന്ന അവന് എല്ലാ കാര്യത്തിലും പരാതിയാണ്. പഠനത്തിൽ ഒട്ടും ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുന്നില്ല."ഇങ്ങനെ സംഭവിക്കാനുണ്ടായ കാരണങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ചാണ് ആദ്യം ആലോചിക്കേണ്ടത്.…read more
Dr Somanath is a leading and eminent psychiatrist based in Kochi. He did his MBBS at Medical College Kottayam and post graduation in psychiatry from NIMHANS Bangalore. He has 20 years of experience in the field of psychiatry and worked as faculty in NIMHANS, SH Hospital Painkulam, Thodupuzha, Child Care Centre Gandhinagar and Lakeshore hospital Kochi. His current research interests are Genetics of Psychiatric disorders, Developmental disorders in children, psychosomatic medicine, Health education & Public awareness programme.read more